Release date
28 October 2023
By Constantinos A Constantinou, Senior Manager, PwC Investment Services (Cyprus) Ltd
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Cryptocurrency Funds: Risks and Opportunities for Investors

Cryptocurrency Funds: Risks and Opportunities for Investors

Cryptocurrencies have garnered significant attention since their introduction to the broader financial world, and they are expected to remain a prominent topic of interest and controversy for years to come. As the popularity of digital currencies, like Bitcoin and Ethereum, continues to expand, so does the interest in investing in them. Similarly, cryptocurrency funds have gained popularity as a way for both retail and institutional investors to gain exposure to the world of digital currencies without the complexities of direct ownership. In recent months, some of the world's most renowned investment firms, including BlackRock, Fidelity, and Invesco have applied for permission to launch their own Bitcoin funds. Meanwhile, Grayscale Investments LLC, after initial setbacks with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, has just recently received court approval to launch a Bitcoin exchange-traded fund (ETF).

The participation of these giants in the cryptocurrency space signals partial institutional acceptance and growth recognition of digital assets. However, like any investment, cryptocurrency funds come with their own set of risks. Investing in a cryptocurrency fund can offer several opportunities, although it is essential to remember that these opportunities come with their own set of risks. This article explores the potential opportunities and risks associated with cryptocurrency funds as a means of cautioning investors.

Opportunities for Investors

Before delving into the risks, let us first understand what cryptocurrency funds are and what they have to offer. Cryptocurrency funds are investment vehicles that pool money from multiple investors to invest in a single cryptocurrency (i.e. Bitcoin ETF) or a portfolio of cryptocurrencies. These funds can take various forms, including hedge funds, mutual funds, ETFs, and private investment funds. Investors are drawn to cryptocurrency funds for several reasons, which are further analyzed below:

  1. Diversification: Multi-currency cryptocurrency funds can offer diversification through spreading risk across a range of cryptocurrencies, rather than relying on a single coin, potentially improving returns.
  2. Professional Management: Investment in a cryptocurrency fund is usually managed by experienced managers who specialize in the cryptocurrency markets and this allows investors to leverage their in-depth knowledge, risk mitigation practices and professional research.
  3. Risk Mitigation: Some cryptocurrency funds employ risk management strategies to protect investors from extreme market volatility. These strategies may include stop-loss orders, hedging, risk limit placement and asset allocation techniques.
  4. Access to Emerging Assets: Cryptocurrency funds provide access to emerging digital assets and blockchain projects that may not be readily available to retail investors. This access can be useful in getting in on the ground floor of innovative technologies and projects.
  5. Liquidity: Unlike direct investments in cryptocurrencies, which may be challenging to buy or sell quickly, publicly traded cryptocurrency funds can offer better or more secure liquidity. This means that investors can enter and exit their investment more easily, which can be crucial in a volatile market. Although liquidity is described as an opportunity, liquidity risk may also arise. This is further analyzed in the next section.
  6. Compliance Framework: Many cryptocurrency funds and their managers operate within a regulated framework. This means that, amongst other things, they have to abide by high standards of corporate governance, employ experienced risk managers and possibly meet adequate liquidity ratios. Operating within a regulated framework may provide some investors with a sense of security and assurance that their investments comply with relevant laws and regulations.
  7. Convenience: Investing in a cryptocurrency fund is often more convenient than managing a portfolio of digital assets by oneself. Entrusting wealth in a professional asset manager can save time and effort which would be required for research and trade execution.

Risks Associated with Cryptocurrency Funds

As a volatile and relatively new product, the underlying asset of cryptocurrencies comes with a variety of inherent risks, as stated below.

  1. Market Volatility: Cryptocurrency markets are notorious for their extreme volatility. Prices can skyrocket and plummet within short periods. While diversification can help mitigate some of this risk, cryptocurrency funds are still subject to the overall crypto market's wild swings. Investors should, therefore, be prepared for significant price fluctuations.
  2. Regulatory Uncertainty: Cryptocurrencies exist within an uncharted regulatory area in many countries. The regulatory landscape is continually evolving, with governments worldwide grappling with how to classify digital assets. The recent allegations by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission against Coinbase is notable. The SEC is accusing Coinbase of potential violations of federal securities laws and the controversy between the two on whether cryptocurrencies meet the criteria for being classified as securities is ongoing. Such uncertainty may result in abrupt regulatory changes that may impact the functioning of cryptocurrency funds.
  3. Tax Implications: Similarly to regulatory uncertainty, cryptocurrency taxation can be complex and varies from one jurisdiction to another. Often, a country’s tax framework may lack clarity on how cryptocurrencies are treated, and legislative updates may introduce unexpected tax obligations. Investing in a cryptocurrency fund may involve tax implications that investors should carefully consider and be prepared for.
  4. Custody Risks: Although cryptocurrency funds provide a convenient way to invest, they are not immune to custody risks. In the context of cryptocurrencies, custody risk is significant because these digital assets are stored in digital wallets. Relevant situations include hacking of digital wallets and cyberattacks, misplacement and loss of access.
  5. Counterparty Risk: Many cryptocurrency funds rely on third-party service providers, such as custodians and exchange platforms. If one of these service providers defaults or experiences financial problems, it can impact the fund's operations and the security of investors' assets. Transparency with respect to the network of the fund’s service providers should be sought and investigation of their credibility should be performed.
  6. Liquidity Risk: Liquidity in the cryptocurrency market can be sporadic. When there's a surge in demand to withdraw funds from a cryptocurrency fund, the fund may not be able to meet these redemption requests immediately. This can lead to delays and give rise to an opportunity cost for investors.
  7. Pump and Dump Schemes: The cryptocurrency market is not immune to fraudulent activities. Bad actors may manipulate the prices of certain cryptocurrencies or tokens at the expense of other investors.

How to Mitigate Risks

While cryptocurrency funds come with inherent risks, investors can take steps to mitigate these challenges, when considering an investment in a cryptocurrency fund:

  1. Diversify: Choose cryptocurrency funds that offer a diversified portfolio of assets. Diversification can help spread risk across different cryptocurrencies and reduce the impact of a single asset's poor performance.
  2. Research: Conduct thorough research on the fund's managers, their track record and the fund's investment strategy. Investors should seek transparency in the fund’s reporting and operations and seek clarifications in relation to risk management and mitigation techniques before investing.
  3. Due Diligence: Understand the fund's security measures and how they protect digital assets. Ensure that they use reputable custodians and follow best practices in terms of security.
  4. Stay Informed: Keep abreast of regulatory and tax developments. This will help investors to anticipate potential changes that could affect their investments and consider whether liquidating their position proactively benefit them.
  5. Liquidity Assessment: Assess the fund's liquidity terms and redemption policies. Understand how quickly a redemption request can be settled.
  6. Tax Planning: Consult with tax professionals who are well-versed in cryptocurrency taxation to ensure compliance with tax laws and tax optimization.
  7. Remain vigilant: Investors should not invest blindly due to fear of missing out (FOMO) or due to the impression of an easy win. Instead, they should make informed decisions based, among other factors, on their individual financial objectives and risk tolerance.


Cryptocurrency funds offer a potentially enticing opportunity to invest in the rapidly evolving world of digital assets. However, it's essential to approach these investments with caution and a clear understanding of the associated risks. By conducting thorough research, diversifying their own investments, and staying informed about the evolving cryptocurrency landscape, investors can better navigate the risks associated with cryptocurrency funds. Most importantly, investors should remember that, like any investment, the decision to invest in cryptocurrency funds should align with their financial goals and risk tolerance. As the cryptocurrency market continues to mature, investors will likely see improvements in risk management and regulatory clarity, which may make this asset class more accessible and secure.

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